Hurricane Idalia made landfall in the Big Bend area of Florida early on Wednesday morning as a Category 3 storm. It brought along strong winds, significant storm surge, and tornadoes to cities along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
However, what was particularly surprising was the rapid intensification of the hurricane. Within just over 24 hours, Hurricane Idalia went from a Category 1 to a Category 4 storm before weakening as it approached the Florida Panhandle.
The main source of energy for hurricanes comes from warm ocean waters. According to the CBC, global sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have reached record highs of 21°C. This warming trend is affecting the Gulf of Mexico, the birthplace of Hurricane Idalia.
Recent studies suggest that the warming of oceans is contributing to the intensification of hurricanes in a changing climate.
Karthik Balaguru, a scientist from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, explains that tropical cyclones intensify by absorbing energy from the ocean. A warmer climate causes oceans to create a more favorable environment for storms to strengthen.
Balaguru highlights that the temperatures in the Gulf of Mexico are currently 1°C to 2°C above average.
The Science Behind Rapid Intensification
Rapid intensification refers to the process in which tropical storms or hurricanes experience a significant increase in strength over a short period of time. According to Gabriel A. Vecchi, a geosciences professor at Princeton University, this phenomenon involves a hurricane rapidly advancing by one or more intensity levels within 24 hours.
While historically occurring in about five percent of hurricanes, the likelihood of rapid intensification has been rising over the past four decades. Rapid intensification is occurring more frequently not only in the Atlantic Ocean but also across tropical regions.
Contrary to popular belief, warmer ocean temperatures alone do not solely contribute to rapid intensification. Atmospheric factors, particularly wind shear, also play a crucial role in strengthening hurricanes.
Wind shear refers to the shift in wind speed as it ascends through the atmosphere. Conditions with high wind shear result in dry air intrusion, diminishing moisture and destabilizing a tropical storm. Conversely, low wind shear enables the maintenance and intensification of a storm.
Recent studies, including one conducted by Balaguru and published in Science, indicate a reduction in wind shear along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. This finding further fuels concerns about hurricane intensification.
While rapid intensification poses significant risks to coastal cities, advances in forecasting have led to improved predictions, ultimately saving lives. Vecchi emphasizes the lessons learned from the devastating 1900 Galveston hurricane, where the absence of accurate predictions resulted in a catastrophic loss of life. By leveraging forecasting capabilities, the potential impact of storms can be mitigated in the present era.
Thus far, there have been no recorded fatalities caused by Hurricane Idalia. It’s reasonable to assume that advancements in weather forecasts are part of the reason for this good news.
Image Source: The Wall Street Journal, https://shorturl.at/bEV19