Bill Gates recently expressed his strong opinion on the effectiveness of mass tree planting. The billionaire Microsoft founder argued that the idea of planting more trees to solve climate change is “complete nonsense.”

Gates’ statements drew criticism from supporters of reforestation initiatives. While tree planting schemes have gained popularity as a means of removing carbon from the atmosphere on a large scale, Gates is not alone in questioning the benefits of these ambitious plans.

Jesus Aguirre Gutierrez, a leading environmental researcher from the University of Oxford, recently cautioned that mass tree planting could potentially do more harm than good. This is particularly true in tropical regions, where it may lead to the replacement of diverse ecosystems with monoculture plantations.

Gutierrez emphasized that the value of tropical forests and grassy ecosystems extends beyond carbon capture and includes various ecological functions. He cited examples in southern Mexico and Ghana where once diverse forests have now become uniform. This has a detrimental effect on local biodiversity and renders forests susceptible to disease.

Moreover, reducing local biodiversity could actually make climate change worse. According to Pete Smith from the University of Aberdeen, biodiversity loss makes ecosystems less capable of absorbing CO2.

The problems with mass tree planting

Many tree planting initiatives focus on agroforestry or plantations, where the trees are eventually cut down and release carbon.

Mass tree planting projects usually prioritize five tree species. According to Al Jazeera, these species are either chosen for their significant economic value or for their rapid growth rate.

Teak is one of the five popular tree species. However, it’s known to kill many native plant species.

Critics also highlight concerns about limited global space for mass planting projects and potential conflicts with smallholder agriculture. In addition, many tree planting initiatives have taken place on wetlands that were erroneously categorized as suitable for forests.

Despite these criticisms, planting more trees still holds value. Jad Daley from American Forests argues that Gates is leveling a “broad brush critique” against reforestation projects. He points out that although there are some poorly planned projects, most initiatives incorporate native species.

To address reforestation concerns, Britain’s Royal Botanic Gardens has created 10 “golden rules for restoring forests.” These rules prioritize protecting existing forests. When reforestation is necessary, the rules recommend avoiding wetlands, promoting natural regeneration, and selecting resilient and biodiverse trees.

Image Source: Jayoti Banerjee,